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The Auxiliary of Human machine interaction in Geriatrics

The Auxiliary of Human Machine Interaction in Geriatrics 
Prof. Ching-Yi Wu 

Research Expertise: Motor Learning and Control Concepts,  Stroke Rehabilitation of Upper Limb, Imaging Diagnosis of Human Brain


Team members

Prof. Ching-Yi Wu; Dr. May-Kuen Wong; Prof. Chao-Sung Lai; Assist. Prof.Yu-Wei Hsieh; Assist. Prof. Kuan-Yi Li; Assist. Prof. Chia-Hsiung Cheng; Assoc. Prof. Yang-Hua Lin; Assoc. Prof. Ya-Ju Chang; Assist. Prof. Pay-Shin Lin; Prof. Hsiao-Lung Chan; Assoc. Prof. Chung-Chih Lin; Dr. Wen-Chung Tsai; Dr.Chih-Kuang Chen


Conceptual framework




General Description


Research Objectives

We aim to 1) establish behavioral and neurophysiological indexes to detect and predict disease occurrence and recurrence; 2) investigate secondary prevention for health deterioration, function decline, or disease recurrence; 3) establish evidence-based intervention using virtual reality and monitoring systems; 4) provide health promotion programs for the elderly at home and the communities. Our target population is community-dwelling elderly, frail, degenerative (e.g., Parkinson disease) older adults, and elderly with cerebral vascular disease.



1. To establish the screening systems for motor and sensory dysfunctions and neuronal impairments using smell, motor perception and balance tests for community-dwelling elderly or degenerative elderly.

2. To screen the cognitive and motor function in elderly with physiological degeneration and cognitive impairment. Investigations of combined cognitive with motor training in elderly for enhancing physical, physiological, and intelligent capacities.

3. Develop a combined therapy of non-invasive brain stimulation technique and behavioral therapy (includes the robot-assisted therapy) for vascular insult elderly to promote physiological and cognitive functions. Integrate engineering technology into therapeutic techniques to establish monitoring and warning systems.

4. Establish the virtual reality and monitoring systems for the elderly and provide telemedicine services and home-based training. 



1. Aging-related effect on somatosensory inhibition of the human cerebral cortex: brain imaging and behavior study.

2. Kinesthetic and olfactory function changes in the early phase of degenerative disorders of the central nervous system.

3. Establishing the central and peripheral fatigue indexes and virtual reality based anti-fatigue training paradigm for individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

4. Virtual reality based dual-task evaluation and training platform for individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

5. Establishing monitoring parameters for frail elderly by using pressure-sensitive insole.

6. Efficacy of robot-assisted rehabilitation on motor control/performance, daily functions, and physiological responses in stroke patients

7. Synergistic effects of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognition, physiological markers, daily function and quality of life in stroke patients

8. Virtual reality training for wheelchair manipulation in the elderly.

9. (1) Development of health promotion programs and virtual reality based intervention systems in individuals with frailty, dementia, and mobility disability. (2) Kinect-based somatosensory detection for fitness and balance ability in the elderly.

10. Effects of different exercise modes in community-dwelling elderly


International Cooperation in Research

1. Self-Efficacy and Health-Related Outcomes in Community Stroke Clients (Professor Yan-Hua Huang, Department of Occupational Therapy, California State University, Dominguez Hills, USA)

2. Rhythmic Neural Activity and Brain Function (Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Canada)



Chuang, I-C., Lin, K-C., Wu, C-Y.*, Hsien, Y-W., Liu, C-T., Chen, C-L. (2017 Accepted). Using rasch analysis to validate the motor activity log and the lower-functioning motor activity log in patients with stroke. Physical Therapy.

Chen, H-L., Lin, K-C., Hsieh, Y-W., Wu, C-Y. *, Liing, R-J., Chen, C-L. (2017 Accepted). A study of predictive validity, responsiveness, and mnimally clinically important difference of arm accelerometer in real-world activity of patients with chronic stroke. Clinical Rehabilitaion.

Cheng C-H.*, Tsai S-Y., Liu C-Y., Niddam D-M. (2017 Accepted) Automatic inhibitory function in the human somatosensory and motor cortices: An MEG-MRS study. Scientific Reports.

Cheng C-H.*, Sun H-H., Weng J-Q., Tseng Y-J. (2017 Accepted) Differential motor cortex excitability during observation of normal and abnormal goal-directed movement patterns. Neuroscience Research.

Li, K-Y. *, Wu, Y-H., & Chen, R-S. (2017). Interrater reliability of clinically performed manual arm position and motion matching test. Neuropsychiatry, 7(4), 290-296.

Li, K-Y. *, Chu, P-Y., & Pickett, A-K. (2017). The Effect of Dopaminergic medication on joint kinematics during haptic movements in individuals with Parkinson’s Disease. Behavioral Neurology, Article ID 2358386.

Hsieh, Y-W., Wu, C-Y., Wang, W-E., Lin, K-C., Chang, K-C., Chen, C-C., & Liu, C-T. (2017). Bilateral robotic priming before task-oriented approach in subacute stroke rehabilitation: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 31(2), 225-233.

Ma, H-Y., Lin, K-C., Hsieh, F-H., Chen, C-L., Tang, S F., & Wu, C-Y. (2017) Kinematic manifestation of arm-trunk performance during symmetric bilateral reaching after stroke: Within vs. beyond arm’s length. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation , 96(3), 146-151.

Hsieh,Y-W., Liing, R-J., Lin, K-C., Wu, C-Y., Liou, T-H., Lin, J-C., & Hung, J-W. (2016) Sequencing bilateral robot-assisted arm therapy and constraint-induced therapy improves reach to press and trunk kinematics in patients with stroke. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 13: 31,1-9.

Wu, C-Y., Chuang, I-C., Ma, H-I., Lin, K-C., & Chen, C-L. (2016). Validity and responsiveness of the revised nottingham sensation assessment for outcome evaluation in stroke rehabilitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(2), 7002290040p1-8.

Hung, C-S., Hsieh, Y-W., Wu, C-Y., Lin, K-C., Lin, Y-T., & Chen, C-L. (2016). The effects of combination of robot-assisted therapy with task-specific or impairment-oriented training on motor function and quality of life in chronic stroke. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1-8.

Cheng, C-H., Chan, P-Y., Hsieh, Y-W., & Chen. K-F. (2016) A meta-analysis of mismatch negativity in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders. Neuroscience Letters, 612, 132-137.

Chan, P-Y., Cheng, C-H., Jhu, Y-J., Chen, C-L., & von Leupoldt, A. (2016) Being Anxious, Thinking Positively: The Effect of Emotional Context on Respiratory Sensory Gating. Frontiers in Physiology, 7: 19.

Cheng, C-H., Tseng, Y-J., Chen, R-S., & Lin, Y-Y. (2016) Reduced functional connectivity of somatosensory network in writer's cramp patients. Brain and Behavior, 6(3), e00433.

Cheng, C-H., Chan, P-Y., Niddam, D-M., Tsai, S-Y., Hsu, S-C., & Liu, C-Y. (2016) Sensory gating, inhibition control and gamma oscillations in the human somatosensory cortex. Scientific Reports, 6: 20437.

Huang, H-H. (2016) Commentary on "Modified Ride-on Car Use by Children with Complex Medical Needs". Pediatric Physical Therapy, 28(1): 108.

Lin, P-S., Hsieh, C-C., Cheng, H-S., Tseng, T-J., & Su, S-C. (2016) Association between Physical Fitness and Successful Aging in Taiwanese Older Adults. PloS One, 11(3): e0150389.

Liang, P-J., & Lin, P-S. (2016) Reliability and Validity of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in Taiwanese Stroke Patients. Formosan Journal of Physical Therapy, 41(1), 28-36.

Lin, Y-C., Tsai, L-C., Cheng, H-Y., Lin, Y-H., & Cheng, C-H. (2016) Postural steadiness after prolonged standing on different sloped surface in young health adults. Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications, 28, 1650007.

Cheng, C-H., Chien, A., Hsu, W-L., Chen, C-P., & Cheng, H-Y. (2016) Investigation of the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles on cervical spinal loads with changing head postures. PLoS One, 11(3), e0150608.

Cheng, C-H., Chien, A., Hsu W-L., Lai, D-M., Wang, S-F., &Wang, J-L. (2016) Identification of head control deficits following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. European Spine Journal, 25(6), 1855-1860.

Chen, C-C., Chuang, Y-F., Huang, A-C., Chen, C-K., & Chang, Y-J. (2016) The antalgic effects of non-invasive physical modalities on central post-stroke pain: a systematic review. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(4), 1368-1373.

Lee, Y-Y., Hsieh, Y-W., Wu, C-Y., Lin, K-C., & Chen, C-K. (2015). Proximal Fugl-Meyer assessment scores predict clinically important upper limb improvement after 3 stroke rehabilitative interventions. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96, 2137-2144.

Chen, P-Y., Lin, K-C., Liing, R-J., Wu, C-Y., Chen, C-L., & Chang, K-C. (2015) Validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important difference of EQ-5D-5L in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Quality of Life Research,. 25(6), 1585-1596.

Lee, Y-Y., Lin, K-C., Cheng, H-J., Wu, C-Y., Hsieh, Y-W., & Chen, C-K. (2015). Effects of combining robot-assisted therapy with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on motor impairment, motor and daily function, and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 12: 96, 1-10.

Fan, Y-T., Wu, C-Y., Liu, H-L., Lin, K-C., Wai, Y-Y., & Chen, Y-L. (2015). Neuroplastic changes in resting-state functional connectivity after stroke rehabilitation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9: 546, 1-12.

Fan, Y-T., Lin, K-C., Liu, H-L., Chen, Y-L., & Wu, C-Y. (2015). Changes in structural integrity are correlated with motor and functional recovery after post-stroke rehabilitation. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 33(6), 835-844.

Wu, C-Y., & Chang, K-C. (2015). Constraint-induced movement therapy translated into practice. [Peer commentary on the paper “Efficacy of home-based Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy on chronic stroke patients' arm use in activities of daily living: Results of the cluster randomised-controlled HOMECIMT trial” by A. Barzel et al]. Lancet Neurology 14(9), 869-871.

Chuang, L-L., Lin, K-C., Hsu, A-L., Wu, C-Y., Chang, K-C., Li, Y-C., Chen, Y-L. (2015). Reliability and validity of a vertical numerical rating scale supplemented with a faces rating scale in measuring fatigue after stroke. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes,13: 91, 1-9.

Wu, C-Y., Chuang, I-C., Ma, H-I., Lin, K-C., & Chen, C-L. (2016). Validity and responsiveness of the revised nottingham sensation assessment for outcome evaluation in stroke rehabilitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(2), 7002290040p1-8.

Li, K-Y., Lin, K-C., Chen, C-K., Liing, R-J., Wu, C-Y., & Chang, W-Y. (2015). Concurrent and predictive validity of arm kinematics with and without trunk restraint during a reaching task in stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(9), 1666-1675.

Lee, Y-Y., Lin, K-C., Wu, C-Y., Liao, C-H., Lin, J-C., Chen, C-L. (2015). Combining afferent stimulation and mirror therapy for improving muscular, sensorimotor, and daily functions after chronic stroke - A randomized, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 94(10), 859-868.

Lin, K-C., Wu, Y-F., Chen, I-C., Tsai, P-L., Wu, C-Y., Chen, C-L. (2015). Dual-task performance involving hand dexterity and cognitive tasks and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia: A pilot study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(3), 6903250020p1-7.

Fan, Y-T., Wu, C-Y., Tsai, W-C., & Lin, K-C. (2015). Effects of lateralized light flash and color on unilateral neglect. Disability and Rehabilitation, 37(26), 2400-2406.

Lai, C-J., Liu, W-Y., Yang, T-F., Chen, C-L., Wu, C-Y., & Chan, A-C. (2015). Pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function and enjoyment in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy of various motor severities. Journal of Child Neurology, 30(2), 200-208.

Li, K-Y., Su, W-J., Fu, H-W., & Pickett, K-A. (2015) Kinesthetic deficit in children with developmental coordination. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 125-133.

Li. K-Y., Fu, H-W., Yau, T-Y., Chen, R-S., & Wu, C-L. (2015) The use of the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification test and the smell threshold test for healthy young and old adults in Taiwan. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120(3), 928-943.

Konczak, J., Aman. J-E., Chen, Y-W., Li, K-Y., & Watson, P.J. (2015) Impaired Limb Proprioception in Adults With Spasmodic Dysphonia. Journal of Voice, 29(6), 777. e17-23.

Huang, Y-Z., Chang, Y-S., Hsu, M-J., Wong, A-M., & Chang, Y-J. (2015) Restoration of central programmed movement pattern by temporal electrical stimulation-assisted training in patients with spinal cerebellar atrophy. Neural Plasticity, 2015:462182.

Chen, C-C., Chuang, Y-F., Yang, H-C., Hsu, M-J., Huang, Y-Z., & Chang, Y-J. (2015) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the median nerve facilitates low motor cortex excitability in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 25(1), 143-150.

Chan, P-Y., Cheng, C-H., & von Leupoldt, A. (2015) The effect of development in respiratory sensory gating measured by electrocortical activations. Neural Plasticity, 2015:389142.

Chan, P-Y., Cheng, C-H., Hsu, S-C., Liu, C-Y., Davenport, P-W., & von Leupoldt, A. (2015) Respiratory sensory gating measured by respiratory-related evoked potentials in generalized anxiety disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 957.

Cheng, C-H., Baillet, S., & Lin, Y-Y. (2015) Region-specific reduction of auditory sensory gating in older adults. Brain and Cognition, 101, 64-72.

Cheng, C-H., Chan, P-Y., Baillet, S., & Lin, Y-Y. (2015) Age-related reduced somatosensory gating is associated with altered alpha frequency desynchronization. Neural Plasticity, 2015:302878.

Cheng, C-H., Su, H-T., Yen, L-W., Liu, W-Y., & Cheng, H-Y. (2015) Long-term effects of therapeutic Eexercise on nonspecific chronic neck pain: a literature review. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(4), 1271-1276.

Chen, C-Y., Chang, C-W., Lee, S-T., Chen, Y-C., Tang, S-F., Cheng, C-H., & Lin, Y-H. (2015) Is rehabilitation intervention during hospitalization enough for functional improvements in patients undergoing lumbar decompression surgery: a prospective randomized controlled study? Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 129(Suppl 1), S41-46.

Huang, W-P., Wang, C-C., Hung, J-H., Chien, K-C., Liu, W-Y., Cheng, C-H., Ng, H-H., & Lin, Y-H. (2015) Joystick-controlled video console game practices for power wheelchairs indoor driving skills. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(2), 495-498.

Yang, W-C., Cheng, C-H., Wang, H-K., Lin, K-H., & Hsu, W-L. (2015) Mulit-muscle coordination during a challenging stance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(9), 1959-1966.

Hsieh, C-C., & Lin, P-S. (2015) Kinect Tai-Chi exercise for community-dwelling older people: A pilot study. The Journal of Long-Term Care, 19(3), 283-294.

Chen, H-C., Chen, C-L., Kang, L-J., Wu, C-Y., Chen, F-C., Hong, W-H. (2014). Improvement of upper extremity motor control and function after home-based constraint-induced therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: Immediate and long-term effects. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(8), 1423-1432.

Chen, C-L., Lin, K-C., Kang, L-J., Wu, C-Y., Chen, H-C., & Hsieh, Y-W. (2014). Potential predictors of functional outcomes after home-based constraint-induced therapy for children with cerebral palsy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(2), 159-166.

Chuang, L-L., Wu, C-Y., Lin, K-C., & Hsieh, C-J. (2014). Relative and absolute reliability of a vertical numerical pain rating scale supplemented with a faces pain scale after stroke. Physical Therapy, 94, 129-138.

Hsieh, Y-W., Lin, K-C., Horng, Y-S., Wu, C-Y., Wu, D-J., & Ku, F-L. (2014). Sequential combination of robot-assisted therapy and constraint-induced therapy in stroke rehabilitation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Neurology, 261(5), 1037-1045.

Hsieh, Y-W., Lin, K-C., Korivi, M., Lee, T-H., Wu, C-Y., & Wu, K-Y. (2014). The reliability and predictive ability of a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage on functional outcomes after stroke rehabilitation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15(4), 6504-6516.

Hsieh, Y-W., Lin, K-C., Wu, C-Y., Lien, H-Y., Chen, J-L., Chen, C-C., & Chang, W-H. (2014). Predicting clinically significant changes in motor and functional outcomes after robot-assisted stroke rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95, 316-321.

Huang, P-C., Hsieh, Y-W., Wang, C-M., Wu, C-Y., Huang, S-C., & Lin, K-C. (2014). Predictors of motor, daily function, and quality of life improvements after upper extremity robot-assisted rehabilitation in stroke. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(3), 325-333.

Lin, K-C., Chen, Y-T., Huang, P-C., Wu, C-Y., Huang. W-L., Yang, H-W., Lai, H-T., & Lu, H-J. (2014). Effect of mirror therapy combined with somatosensory stimulation on motor recovery and daily function in stroke patients: A pilot study. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 113(7), 422-428.

Lin, K-C., Huang, P-C., Chen, Y-T., Wu, C-Y., & Huang, W-L. (2014). Combining afferent stimulation and mirror therapy for rehabilitating motor function, motor control, ambulation, and daily functions after stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair,28(2), 153-162.

Wu, C-Y., Liing, R-J., Chen, H-C., Chen, C-L., & Lin, K-C. (2014). Arm and trunk movement kinematics during seated reaching within and beyond arm’s length in patients with stroke: A validity study. Physical Therapy,94(6), 845-856.

Cheng, C-H., Cheng, H-Y., Chen, C-P., Lin, K-H., Liu, W-Y., Wang, S-F., Hsu, W-L., & Chuang, Y-F. (2014) Altered co-contraction of cervical muscles in young adults with chronic neck pain during voluntary neck motions. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(4), 587-590.

Chien, A., Lai, D-M., Cheng, C-H., Wang, S-F., Hsu, W-L., & Wang. J-L. (2014) Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of a Chinese version of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire. Spine, 39(12), 963-970.

Fang, C-Y., Lee, B-R., & Chang, Y-J. (2014) The supraspinal excitability modulation before rapid and slow goal-directed movements in human. Formosan Journal of Physical Therapy, 39(1), 42-49.

Hsu, W-L., Lin, K-H., Yang, R-S., & Cheng, C-H. (2014) Use of motor abundance in old adults in the regulation of a narrow-based stance. European Journal of applied Physiology, 114(2), 261-271.

Huang, H-H., Ellis, T-D., Wagenaar, R-C., & Fetters, L. (2014) Effect of body-scaled information on reaching in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 26(1), 28-37.

Huang, H-H., Ragonesi, C-B., Stoner, T., Peffley, T., & Galloway, J-C. (2014) Modified toy cars for mobility and socialization: a case report of a child with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 26(1), 76-84.

Li, K-Y., & Wu, Y-H. (2014) Clinical evaluation of motion and position sense in the upper extremities of the elderly using motion analysis system. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 1123-1131.

Lin, M-R., Hwang, H-F., Lin, P-S., & Chen, C-Y. (2014) Relationships of osteoporosis and follow-up length to recurrent falls in older men and women. Osteoporosis International, 25(3), 863-871.

Lin, P-S., Lin, T-C., Chen, C-C., Chi, S-F., Chen, C-K., & Wong, M-K. (2014) An simplified Comprehensive Assessment Tool for long-term care residents in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 42(1), 41-50.

Liu, W-Y., Chen, F-J., Lin, Y-H., Kuo, C-H., Lien, H-Y., & Yu, Y-J.. (2014) Postural alignment in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy using a bimanual interface for powered wheelchair control. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 46(1), 39-44.

Logan, S-W., Huang, H-H., Stahlin, K., & Galloway, J-C. (2014) Modified ride-on car use for mobility and socialization: single-case study of an infant with Down syndrome. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 26(4), 418-426.

Li, K-Y., Hsu, W-C., & Lin, L-J. (2014) Effect of the recreational life review program on patients with dementia in an outpatient clinic: a preliminary study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119, 1-12.

Chan, P-Y., von Leupoldt, A., Liu, C-Y., & Hsu, S-c. (2014) Respiratory perception measured by cortical neural activations in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 204, 36-40.

Chenivesse, C., Chan, P-Y., Tsai, H-W., Wheeler-Hegland, K., Silverman, E., von Leupoldt, A., Similowski, T., & Davenport, P. (2014) Negative emotional stimulation decreases respiratory sensory gating in healthy humans. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 204, 50-57.

Yu, C-H., Hung, Y-C., Lin, Y-H., Chen, G-X., Wei, S-H., Huang, C-H., & Chen, C-S. (2014) A 3D mathematical model to predict spinal joint and hip joint force for trans-tibial amputees with different SACH foot pylon adjustments. Gait & Posture, 40(4), 545-548.



                                                    Contact: Ms. Chen   amia@mail.cgu.edu.tw